Bypassing OpenSSL Certificate Pinning in iOS Apps
Bypassing OpenSSL Certificate Pinning in iOS Apps: When mobile applications communicate with an API or web service, this should generally happen via TLS/SSL (e.g., HTTPS). In order to verify the identity of the server and to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, TLS relies on certificates which prove the identity of the web server. Browsers and mobile operating systems come preconfigured with a list of trusted Certificate Authorities (CAs). Since any of the CAs may issue a certificate for any hostname/server, security-conscious applications should “pin” the expected server certificate in the application, i.e., not accept any certificate but the one issued by the known-good CA which the application developer uses.
From a penetration testing perspective, this may cause practical problems since it is difficult to intercept the communication of an application that makes use of this technique. Without pinning, interception typically involves adding the TLS certificate of an intercepting proxy (such as Burp) to the certificate store of the target operating system. However, when the app uses certificate pinning, this store is often ignored. On iOS, when the app uses standard iOS APIs, the iOS SSL Kill Switch, developed by Matasano’s sister company iSEC Partners, can be used to bypass pinning and force the application to accept any certificate presented by the server or proxy. The Kill Switch uses the Cydia Substrate which hooks the iOS functions used for certificate validation and modifies them so that they accept any certificate. It becomes more complicated when the app uses the OpenSSL library instead of the native iOS frameworks since they are not affected by the Kill Switch’s hooking.